What is vitamin D?

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin essential in our diet. It is synthesized in the skin by exposure to the sunlight and is also present in some foods.


Which foods are high in vitamin D?

Few foods are naturally rich in vitamin D. Fatty fish contain significant amounts of vitamin D.


What is the role of vitamin D?

Vitamin D helps calcium absorption, increases bone mass and improves balance. In addition, it appears to have multiple beneficial effects on various bodily systems, such as on the immune and cardiovascular system.


Vitamin D deficiency

/ / / What is vitamin D deficiency?

Lower than normal vitamin D levels lead to vitamin D deficiency, which can be clinical or subclinical. Subclinical vitamin D deficiency is common in developed countries, especially during the winter months and in older age groups.


Ανεπάρκεια Βιταμίνης D

/ / / What are the causes of vitamin D deficiency?

The causes of vitamin D deficiency can be:

  • abnormalities in its production, metabolism or action.

However, the most common cause is:

  • insufficient exposure to the sun;
  • full coverage with sunscreens and
  • dark skin

/ / / What are the symptoms of vitamin D deficiency?

  • Asymptomatic
  • Muscle aches
  • Muscle weakness
  • Bone pain or sensitivity
  • Difficulty walking

/ / / What are the complications of vitamin D deficiency?

Subclinical vitamin D deficiency is associated with:

  • osteoporosis,
  • increased risk of falls
  • and possibly of fractures.

On the other hand, clinical vitamin D deficiency is characterized by:

  • hypocalcaemia (low calcium);
  • hypophosphatemia (low phosphorus),
  • rickets and osteomalacia in children,
  • osteomalacia in adults, but it is rare nowadays.

/ / / Treatment of Vitamin D deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency is treated with supplements in a dose that depends on the degree of the deficiency. Again, individualisation of treatment is important, especially in special categories such as: