What are the parathyroid glands?;

The parathyroid glands are four small endocrine glands, associated to the thyroid gland, about the size of a grain of rice. They have a “sensor” role detecting any drop in blood calcium, no matter how small it may be.

Each such drop in calcium causes a corresponding amount of parathyroid hormone release, in order to maintain calcium levels within the narrow normal limits.

What is the parathyroid hormone?

Parathyroid hormone is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands with a goal to maintain calcium and phosphorus levels at normal levels.

The latter is achieved by PTH in cooperation with four other hormones, namely; Klotho, Calcitonin, FGF23 and Vitamin D, all of which together mobilize a complex endocrine mechanism involving four organs: the parathyroid glands, the bones, the kidneys and the gastrointestinal tract along with the liver.

When the secretion and/or action of parathyroid hormone is increased, the condition is called hyperparathyroidism, while when the secretion and/or action of parathyroid hormone is decreased, the condition is called hypoparathyroidism. Both conditions disturb calcium metabolism.