What is Menopause?

Menopause is defined as the permanent cessation of menses, determined retrospectively after a woman has had amenorrhea for at least 12 months without any other obvious pathological cause. It is a normal biological phenomenon, which occurs at an average age of 51,4 years


What are the signs and symptoms of menopause?

  • Amenorrhea
  • Hot flashes
  • Vaginal Dryness
  • Night sweats
  • Insomnia
  • Chest pain
  • Depression
  • Joints aches and pains
  • Migraines
  • Weight gain and slowing of metabolism
  • Loss of breast fullness
  • Decrease in bone mineral density (Bone loss)

What are the complications of menopause?

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Osteoporosis
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Difficulty in sexual intercourse
  • Decreased libido
  • Slowed metabolism
  • Skin changes

How is menopause diagnosed?

Menopause is diagnosed through history, physical examination and hormonal tests.


How is menopause managed?

Management of menopause is mainly aimed at relieving symptoms and preventing or treating chronic diseases that can develop from this period onwards:

  • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
  • Vaginal oestrogens
  • Anti-depressants
  • Antiepileptic drugs
  • Other vaginal creams
  • SERM
  • Osteoporosis medications