What is hypopituitarism;

Hypopituitarism refers to decreased secretion of one or more hormones, normally secreted by the pituitary gland.


What is the incidence of the disease;

The incidence of the disease is 4.2 cases per 100,000 people, per year.


What are the symptoms and signs of hypopituitarism;

The signs and symptoms of hypopituitarism depend on the hormone or hormones that is/are deficient:


/ / / Growth Hormone Deficiency

Growth hormone deficiency is manifested as:

  • Decreased growth and short stature in children
  • hypoglycaemia
  • central obesity
  • decreased muscle mass
  • muscle weakness
  • fatigue

/ / / Gonadotropin Deficiency

Gonadotropin deficiency results in hypogonadism and can be presented as:


Υπόφυση - Υποϋποφυσισμός

/ / / Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Deficiency

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone deficiency manifests as central hypothyroidism and includes:

  • Constipation
  • Fatigue
  • Cold Intolerance
  • Dry Skin
  • Weight gain

/ / / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Deficiency

Adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency causes secondary adrenal insufficiency and may presents as:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • fatigue
  • hypoglycaemia
  • vertigo
  • weight loss
  • hypotension
  • collapse
  • death

/ / / Prolactin deficiency

Prolactin deficiency is manifested as:

  • inability to breastfeed

/ / / Antidiuretic Hormone Deficiency

Antidiuretic hormone deficiency results in diabetes insipidus and may presents as :

  • intense thirst (polydipsia)
  • frequent urination (polyuria), nocturia
  • tiredness
  • weakness
  • nausea, vomiting
  • dizziness, confusion
  • electrolyte disorders (sodium increase/hypernatremia)

What are the causes of hypopituitarism;

The causes of the disease are many, such as:

  • pituitary adenomas
  • hypothalamic tumours
  • metastases
  • invasive, infiltrative, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases
  • radiation and prior pituitary surgery
  • head injury
  • genetic syndromes
  • idiopathic

What are the complications of hypopituitarism;

  • failure of growth
  • hypotension
  • cardiovascular complications
  • electrolyte disturbances
  • death

How is hypopituitarism diagnosed;

Diagnosis includes physical examination, history, specialized endocrinological and dynamic tests to determine the hormones that are deficient, magnetic resonance imaging, biopsy.


What is the treatment of hypopituitarism;

Treatment consists of:

  • treatment of the cause and
  • replacement of hormones that are inadequate
  • Failure to replace the hormones that are deficient leads to serious complications and even death. That is why regular monitoring of these patients is crucial.