What is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is an endocrinopathy that leads to menstrual and metabolic disturbances, infertility and increased androgen secretion.


What are the causes of the syndrome?

The exact causes of the syndrome are not known. Both genetic factors, such as increased androgen secretion and insulin resistance, and environmental factors, such as obesity, appear to be involved.


How common is it?

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a very common endocrinopathy. It is the cause of over 30% of cases of menstrual disorders.


What are the symptoms?

  • Menstrual irregularities
  • Increased hair growth in areas where hair normally grows in men (e.g. moustache)
  • Acne
  • Male-pattern baldness
  • Polycystic Ovaries

What are the complications of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?

  • Infertility
  • Endometrial hyperplasia
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Miscarriage
  • Pre-eclampsia
  • Prematurity
  • Gestational diabetes
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
  • Diabetes type 2, prediabetes
  • Increased cholesterol
  • Increased Cardiovascular Risk

How is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome diagnosed?

The diagnosis of the syndrome is made through history, physical examination, hormone tests and transvaginal ultrasound.


What is the treatment for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?

Treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome aims to treat the symptoms and prevent complications and includes:

  • Weight loss
  • Healthy Diet
  • Exercise
  • Contraceptive pills with estrogen-progesterone combination
  • Antiandrogens

Treatment of the syndrome is very important, especially to avoid endometrial hyperplasia and reduce cardiovascular risk.